How To Help Someone with PTSD

Supporting a loved one with PTSD involves understanding the condition, creating a safe environment, identifying triggers, encouraging treatment, and effective communication.
Published on
May 28, 2024
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Living with someone with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can present unique challenges for family caregivers. How to help someone with PTSD? The impact on relationships and family life can be significant, taking an emotional toll on caregivers and leading to struggles in understanding the behavior of their loved ones with PTSD. 

Understanding PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition triggered by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. It is characterized by symptoms such as intrusive memories, flashbacks, severe anxiety, and emotional numbness, which can significantly impair daily functioning and quality of life.

Common causes

Common causes of PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) include experiencing or witnessing traumatic events that involve actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence. These events can overwhelm an individual's ability to cope, leading to the development of PTSD. Some of the most common causes are:

  1. Combat exposure: Military personnel who have been in combat situations may develop PTSD due to the extreme stress and life-threatening conditions they face.
  2. Physical assault: Victims of physical assault, including domestic violence, robbery, or mugging, can develop PTSD due to the intense fear and threat to their safety.
  3. Sexual assault: Survivors of rape or sexual abuse often experience PTSD due to the violation and trauma associated with these acts.
  4. Accidents: Serious car accidents, plane crashes, or other life-threatening incidents can lead to PTSD, mainly if they result in severe injury or loss of life.
  5. Natural disasters: Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, or wildfires can be traumatic, especially if they cause significant destruction and loss of life.
  6. Terrorist attacks: Witnessing or being involved in a terrorist attack can be a severe traumatic event leading to PTSD due to the violence and threat to life.
  7. Childhood abuse: Physical, emotional, or sexual abuse during childhood can have long-lasting effects and result in PTSD later in life.
  8. Sudden death of a loved one: The unexpected loss of a close family member or friend can be traumatic and lead to PTSD, especially if the death was violent or sudden.
  9. Medical incidents: Experiencing or witnessing severe medical emergencies, such as life-threatening illnesses or injuries, can cause PTSD.
  10. Witnessing violence: Seeing someone else experience trauma, such as witnessing a violent crime or an accident, can also lead to PTSD.

Understanding these causes is crucial for recognizing and addressing PTSD in individuals who have experienced significant trauma.

Triggers of PTSD

Triggers of PTSD are stimuli that remind individuals of their traumatic experiences, causing intense emotional and physical reactions. These triggers can be varied and often unpredictable, including sensory experiences such as specific sounds, smells, or sights that were present during the trauma.

For example, a loud noise might remind a combat veteran of gunfire, or a particular scent might evoke memories of a traumatic event. Situational triggers, like returning to the place where the trauma occurred or encountering someone who was involved, can also provoke PTSD symptoms. Additionally, anniversaries of the traumatic event can act as powerful triggers, reigniting the emotional pain and distress associated with the original experience.

Emotional states such as stress, anxiety, or feelings of helplessness can further exacerbate these reactions, making daily life challenging for those with PTSD. Understanding and identifying these triggers is crucial in helping individuals manage their symptoms and reduce the impact of PTSD on their lives.

Signs and symptoms of PTSD

Living with someone who has PTSD can have a profound impact on relationships and family life. Family caregivers often experience various emotions and face challenges in understanding their loved one's behavior. Symptoms are usually intrusive and may include: 

  1. Flashbacks: Aging adults with PTSD may experience vivid and distressing memories of past traumatic experiences.
  2. Nightmares: Persistent and disturbing dreams related to the traumatic event(s) can be a symptom of PTSD in older adults.
  3. Hyperarousal: Increased anxiety, irritability, and hypervigilance are common symptoms, causing the person to be on edge and easily startled.
  4. Avoidance behaviors: Older adults with PTSD may actively avoid people, places, or situations that remind them of the traumatic event(s).
  5. Social isolation: Withdrawing from social activities and relationships is a common symptom, as aging adults may struggle to trust others or fear being vulnerable.
  6. Mood disturbances: Mood swings, depression, guilt, or shame are often present in aging adults with PTSD.
  7. Sleep disturbances are common symptoms of insomnia or disturbed sleep patterns, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep.
  8. Cognitive difficulties: Aging adults with PTSD may experience problems with concentration, memory, and decision-making, affecting their daily functioning.

Symptoms of PTSD can vary among individuals, and some older adults may exhibit different or additional symptoms.


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Types of treatment for PTSD


  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT):
    • Cognitive processing therapy (CPT): This type of CBT helps individuals understand and change their thoughts about the trauma. It often involves writing about the traumatic event and discussing its impact on one's beliefs and feelings.
    • Prolonged exposure (PE): PE helps patients gradually approach trauma-related memories, feelings, and situations that they have been avoiding. This process can help reduce the power of the trauma over time.
    • Trauma-focused CBT (TF-CBT): Specifically designed for children and adolescents, TF-CBT includes individual sessions for the child and parent, as well as joint sessions, focusing on the trauma and its effects on the family.
  2. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR):
    • EMDR involves recalling distressing memories while receiving bilateral sensory input, such as side-to-side eye movements or hand tapping. This process helps reprocess traumatic memories and reduce their emotional impact.
  3. Group therapy:
    • Group therapy provides a supportive environment where individuals with PTSD can share experiences and coping strategies. This communal approach helps reduce feelings of isolation and provides a sense of camaraderie.
  4. Family therapy:
    • Family therapy involves the patient's family in the treatment process, helping them understand PTSD and learn how to support their loved one effectively. It can also address family dynamics that may be affected by PTSD.


  1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs):
    • SSRIs like sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil) are commonly prescribed for PTSD. They help alleviate symptoms by increasing serotonin levels in the brain, which can improve mood and reduce anxiety.
  2. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs):
    • SNRIs, such as venlafaxine (Effexor), work similarly to SSRIs but also affect norepinephrine levels. They can be effective for both depression and anxiety symptoms associated with PTSD.
  3. Other medications:
    • Prazosin: Often used to treat nightmares and sleep disturbances in PTSD patients.
    • Benzodiazepines: Sometimes prescribed for short-term relief of severe anxiety but are generally avoided for long-term use due to the risk of dependence.
    • Antipsychotics and mood stabilizers: May be used in cases where PTSD symptoms are severe and other treatments are not effective.

Combining these treatments can provide comprehensive care, addressing both the psychological and physiological aspects of PTSD, leading to improved outcomes for many patients.

Supporting someone with PTSD

Supporting someone with PTSD can be challenging, but your understanding and compassion can make a huge difference in their recovery. Educating yourself, creating a safe environment, and encouraging treatment can help your loved one manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Here are key strategies to effectively support someone living with PTSD:

Educate yourself

Understanding PTSD is crucial in providing practical support to a loved one. Educate yourself about the condition, its symptoms, and available treatments. This knowledge will help you empathize with their experiences and respond appropriately to their needs. Access resources from reputable organizations and consider attending support groups or workshops to deepen your understanding.

Create a safe and supportive environment

Creating a safe and supportive environment involves being patient, understanding, and non-judgmental. Ensure your home is where your loved one feels secure and comfortable. Encourage open communication and listen to your loved one without trying to "fix" their problems, as feeling heard and understood can significantly reduce their stress.

Identify triggers

Work with your loved one to identify and understand their specific triggers, which are situations, places, or objects that can cause distress. Proactively recognizing these triggers can help avoid or manage them more effectively.

Help your loved one establish a routine

A daily routine can provide a feeling of stability and predictability, which is often comforting for individuals with PTSD. Encourage your loved one to maintain regular sleep, exercise, and meal times. Participating in enjoyable activities together can also provide positive distractions and foster a sense of normalcy.

Encourage treatment and therapy

Supporting your loved one in seeking and continuing treatment is vital for their recovery. Encourage them to attend therapy sessions and follow their treatment plan, offering to accompany them if they feel comfortable. Show your support by acknowledging their efforts and progress, reinforcing the importance of professional help in managing PTSD.

Use effective communication

Effective communication involves being a good listener and showing empathy. Avoid pressuring your loved one to talk about their trauma; instead, let them share at their own pace. Use reassuring language, validate their feelings, and avoid minimizing their experiences. Clear and compassionate communication can strengthen your relationship and provide emotional support.

Coordinate with medical professionals

Collaborating with medical professionals, such as therapists and doctors, ensures your loved one receives comprehensive care. Stay informed about their treatment plan and medications and attend appointments if appropriate. This coordination can help you better understand their needs and provide consistent support, aligning with professional advice and strategies.


Can you get paid to care for your loved one?

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Compensation for caregivers who care for someone with PTSD

Caregivers can access resources like respite care, caregiver support groups, and financial assistance programs. In some cases, caregivers may be eligible for programs that compensate them for their caregiving duties, ensuring they can focus on providing the best care for their loved ones without financial strain.

Some programs that may support caregivers in these instances include:

  1. Medicaid waiver programs: Many states offer Medicaid waiver programs that provide financial assistance to caregivers. These programs are designed to keep individuals with disabilities or chronic illnesses in their homes rather than in institutional settings. For example, the Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) waivers often include provisions for paying family caregivers.
  2. Veterans Affairs (VA) caregiver support: The VA offers the Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers program, which provides financial support, training, and respite care to caregivers of veterans injured in the line of duty. This program helps ensure that veterans receive high-quality care at home.
  3. State-specific programs: Some states have their own caregiver support programs. For instance, California's In-Home Supportive Services (IHSS) program allows eligible individuals to hire caregivers, including family members, and pay them for their services.
  4. Social security benefits: If the person being cared for qualifies for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI), caregivers might receive benefits indirectly. Some programs allocate a portion of these benefits to caregivers.
  5. Structured Family Caregiving (SFC): Programs like SFC provide financial compensation and support to family members who serve as primary caregivers. These programs typically include regular training, care coordination, and financial stipends.

We recommend researching specific programs in your state or region to find the most suitable support options for you and your loved one.

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